Overview of Section Resources

Section 1: From Cells to Systems
Students begin their investigation of the human body by observing cell structure and learning the differences between a plant cell and an animal cell. They then observe slides of human tissues. They relate the structure of a body system to its function and consider how systems work together.
Section 2: Nutrients in Foods
Students learn about nutrients and the Food Guide Pyramid. They use qualitative methods to test for fats, starches, and sugars in foods. They learn to recognize positive and negative results in the iodine test for starch and in Benedict's test for sugar.
Section 3: Digestion
Students study digestion by observing what happens to a starch when it is combined with a chemical that models saliva. Students observe that iodine can pass through a membrane but starch cannot. They observe digestion of proteins, using meat tenderizer as an enzyme source. Students also model the absorption rate of villi in the small intestine.
Section 4: Circulation
Students measure resting heart rate, compare it with heart rate after exercise, and relate the increase to cells' increased need for oxygen and energy. Students listen to heart sounds and relate the sounds to the function of the heart chambers. Students model the movement of blood by role-playing parts of the circulatory system. They relate circulation to the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs and body tissues.
Section 5: Respiration
Students compare photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of reactants and products. They observe the use of bromothymol blue to test for the presence of oxygen or carbon dioxide. Students measure lung capacity and model the action of the diaphragm.
Section 6: Movement Across Membranes
Students observe movement across membranes and relate it to transport and excretion. Students observe osmosis and diffusion in raisins, an egg, and potato slices soaked in water and other substances.
Section 7: Muscles, Bones, and Joints
Students observe bones and relate bone structure to its function. They measure reaction time. Students build a model arm to demonstrate how certain muscles work in pairs to enable movement.